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Monday, 6 August 2018

FRACKING UK: What chemicals are used in fracking, to ruin our countryside? + LIVE PLANNING APPLICATIONS and LOCATIONS









What Chemicals Are Used

As previously noted, chemicals perform many functions in a hydraulic fracturing job.  Although there are dozens to hundreds of chemicals which could be used as additives, there are a limited number which are routinely used in hydraulic fracturing.  The following is a list of the chemicals used most often.  This chart is sorted alphabetically by the Product Function to make it easier for you to compare to the fracturing records .
Chemical NameCASChemical PurposeProduct Function
Hydrochloric Acid007647-01-0Helps dissolve minerals and initiate cracks in the rockAcid

Glutaraldehyde000111-30-8Eliminates bacteria in the water that produces corrosive by-productsBiocide
Quaternary Ammonium Chloride012125-02-9Eliminates bacteria in the water that produces corrosive by-productsBiocide
Quaternary Ammonium Chloride061789-71-1Eliminates bacteria in the water that produces corrosive by-productsBiocide
Tetrakis Hydroxymethyl-Phosphonium Sulfate055566-30-8Eliminates bacteria in the water that produces corrosive by-productsBiocide
Ammonium Persulfate007727-54-0Allows a delayed break down of the gelBreaker
Sodium Chloride007647-14-5Product StabilizerBreaker
Magnesium Peroxide014452-57-4Allows a delayed break down the gel Breaker
Magnesium Oxide001309-48-4Allows a delayed break down the gel Breaker
Calcium Chloride010043-52-4Product StabilizerBreaker
Choline Chloride000067-48-1Prevents clays from swelling or shiftingClay Stabilizer
Tetramethyl ammonium chloride000075-57-0Prevents clays from swelling or shiftingClay Stabilizer
Sodium Chloride007647-14-5Prevents clays from swelling or shiftingClay Stabilizer
Isopropanol000067-63-0Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agentCorrosion Inhibitor
Methanol000067-56-1Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agentCorrosion Inhibitor
Formic Acid000064-18-6Prevents the corrosion of the pipeCorrosion Inhibitor
Acetaldehyde000075-07-0Prevents the corrosion of the pipeCorrosion Inhibitor
Petroleum Distillate064741-85-1Carrier fluid for borate or zirconate crosslinkerCrosslinker
Hydrotreated Light Petroleum Distillate064742-47-8Carrier fluid for borate or zirconate crosslinkerCrosslinker
Potassium Metaborate013709-94-9Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increasesCrosslinker
Triethanolamine Zirconate101033-44-7Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increasesCrosslinker
Sodium Tetraborate001303-96-4Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increasesCrosslinker
Boric Acid001333-73-9Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increasesCrosslinker
Zirconium Complex113184-20-6Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increasesCrosslinker
Borate SaltsN/AMaintains fluid viscosity as temperature increasesCrosslinker
Ethylene Glycol000107-21-1Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  Crosslinker
Methanol000067-56-1Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  Crosslinker
Polyacrylamide009003-05-8“Slicks” the water to minimize friction Friction Reducer
Petroleum Distillate064741-85-1Carrier fluid for polyacrylamide friction reducerFriction Reducer
Hydrotreated Light Petroleum Distillate064742-47-8Carrier fluid for polyacrylamide friction reducerFriction Reducer
Methanol000067-56-1Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  Friction Reducer
Ethylene Glycol000107-21-1Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  Friction Reducer
Guar Gum009000-30-0Thickens the water in order to suspend the sandGelling Agent
Petroleum Distillate064741-85-1Carrier fluid for guar gum in liquid gelsGelling Agent
Hydrotreated Light Petroleum Distillate064742-47-8Carrier fluid for guar gum in liquid gelsGelling Agent
Methanol000067-56-1Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  Gelling Agent
Polysaccharide Blend068130-15-4Thickens the water in order to suspend the sandGelling Agent
Ethylene Glycol000107-21-1Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  Gelling Agent
Citric Acid000077-92-9Prevents precipitation of metal oxidesIron Control
Acetic Acid000064-19-7Prevents precipitation of metal oxidesIron Control
Thioglycolic Acid000068-11-1Prevents precipitation of metal oxidesIron Control
Sodium Erythorbate006381-77-7Prevents precipitation of metal oxidesIron Control
Lauryl Sulfate000151-21-3Used to prevent the formation of emulsions in the fracture fluidNon-Emulsifier
Isopropanol000067-63-0Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  Non-Emulsifier
Ethylene Glycol000107-21-1Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  Non-Emulsifier
Sodium Hydroxide001310-73-2Adjusts the pH of fluid to maintains the effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers pH Adjusting Agent
Potassium Hydroxide001310-58-3Adjusts the pH of fluid to maintains the effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers pH Adjusting Agent
Acetic Acid000064-19-7Adjusts the pH of fluid to maintains the effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers pH Adjusting Agent
Sodium Carbonate000497-19-8Adjusts the pH of fluid to maintains the effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers pH Adjusting Agent
Potassium Carbonate000584-08-7Adjusts the pH of fluid to maintains the effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers pH Adjusting Agent
Copolymer of Acrylamide and Sodium Acrylate025987-30-8Prevents scale deposits in the pipeScale Inhibitor
Sodium PolycarboxylateN/APrevents scale deposits in the pipeScale Inhibitor
Phosphonic Acid SaltN/APrevents scale deposits in the pipeScale Inhibitor
Lauryl Sulfate000151-21-3Used to increase the viscosity of the fracture fluidSurfactant
Ethanol000064-17-5Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  Surfactant
Naphthalene000091-20-3Carrier fluid for the active surfactant ingredientsSurfactant
Methanol000067-56-1Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  Surfactant
Isopropyl Alcohol000067-63-0Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  Surfactant
2-Butoxyethanol000111-76-2Product stabilizerSurfactant
One of the problems associated with identifying chemicals is that some chemicals have multiple names.  For example Ethylene Glycol (Antifreeze) is also known by the names Ethylene alcohol; Glycol; Glycol alcohol; Lutrol 9; Macrogol 400 BPC; Monoethylene glycol; Ramp; Tescol; 1,2-Dihydroxyethane; 2-Hydroxyethanol; HOCH2CH2OH; Dihydroxyethane; Ethanediol; Ethylene gycol; Glygen; Athylenglykol; Ethane-1,2-diol; Fridex; M.e.g.; 1,2-Ethandiol; Ucar 17; Dowtherm SR 1; Norkool; Zerex; Aliphatic diol; Ilexan E; Ethane-1,2-diol  1,2-Ethanedio.
This multiplicity of names can make a search for chemicals somewhat difficult and frustrating. However, if you search for a chemical by the CAS number it will return the correct chemical even if the name on the fracturing record does not match. For example if the fracturing record listed the chemical Hydrogen chloride and you searched for it by name using a chemical search site you may not get a result. But if you search for CAS # 007647-01-0 it might return Hydrochloric acid which is another name of Hydrogen chloride. Therefore, by using the CAS number you can avoid the issue of multiple names for the same chemical.
Multiple names for the same chemical can also leave you with the impression that there are more chemicals than actually exist.  If you search the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) ‡ website the alternate names of chemicals are listed. This may help you identify the precise chemical you are looking for. The NIST site also contains the CAS numbers for chemicals. NIST is only one of many websites you can use to locate additional information about chemicals. You can also search the following websites using the chemical name or CAS number:







Find Well

Search for nearby well sites that have been hydraulically fractured to see what chemicals were used in the process.


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Ground Water Protection Council Interstate Oil and Gas





source:  https://fracfocus.org/chemical-use/what-chemicals-are-used




source:  http://frack-off.org.uk/locations/