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A 16th-century portrait by an unknown artist
|Born||13 July 1527|
|Died||December 1608 or March 1609 (age 81)|
Mortlake, Surrey, England
|Alma mater||St John's College, Cambridge|
|Known for||Advisor to Queen Elizabeth I|
|Fields||Mathematics, alchemy, astrology, Hermeticism, navigation,|
|Institutions||Trinity College, Cambridge|
Christ's College, Manchester
|Academic advisors||Gemma Frisius, Gerardus Mercator|
|Notable students||Thomas Digges|
Advocacy of English expansion
Reputation and significance
- Monas Hieroglyphica, 1564
- Preface to Billingsley's Euclid (Billingsley's translation of Euclid's Elements), 1570
- General and Rare Memorials pertayning to the Perfect Arte of Navigation, 1577
- On the Mystical Rule of the Seven Planets, 1582–83
- Dee's Speculum or Mirror (an obsidian Aztec cult object in the shape of a hand-mirror, brought to Europe in the late 1520s), which was subsequently owned by Horace Walpole. Jennifer Rampling has claimed that Dee never actually owned this object. The item now residing in the British Museum was first attributed to Dee by Horace Walpole. Lord Frederick Campbell had brought "a round piece of shining black marble in a leathern case" to Walpole in an attempt to ascertain the object's provenance. According to Walpole, he responded saying "Oh, Lord, I am the only man in England that can tell you! It is Dr. Dee's black stone". There is no explicit reference to the mirror in any of Dee's surviving writings. The provenance of the Museum's obsidian speculum, as well as the crystal ball, is in fact dubious.
- The small wax seals used to support the legs of Dee's "table of practice" (the table at which the scrying was performed).
- The large, elaborately decorated wax "Seal of God", used to support the "shew-stone", the crystal ball used for scrying.
- A gold amulet engraved with a representation of one of Kelley's visions.
- A crystal globe, six centimetres in diameter. This item remained unnoticed for many years in the mineral collection; possibly the one owned by Dee, but the provenance of this object is less certain than that of the others.
Literary and cultural references
16th and 17th centuries
- Edmund Spenser may refer to Dee in The Faerie Queene (1596).
- William Shakespeare may have modelled the character of Prospero in The Tempest (1610–11) on Dee.
- William Harrison Ainsworth includes Dee as a character in his 1840 novel Guy Fawkes.
- Dee is the subject of Henry Gillard Glindoni's painting John Dee performing an experiment before Queen Elizabeth I.
- John Dee appears as the plot's main antagonist "the Walker" in Charlie Fletcher's book Stoneheart (2006)
- Phil Rickman casts John Dee as the main detective, investigating the disappearance of the bones of King Arthur during the reign of Elizabeth I in the historical mystery The Bones of Avalon (2010).
- The play Burn Your Bookes (2010) by Richard Byrne examines the relationship between John Dee, Edward Kelley and Edward Dyer.
- The opera Dr Dee: An English Opera, written by Damon Albarn, explores Dee's life and work. It was premiered at the Palace Theatre in Manchester on 1 July 2011 and opened at the London Coliseum as part of the London 2012 Festival for the Cultural Olympiad in June 2012.
- John Dee appears as an antagonist in the 2017 video game Nioh.
- According to Charlotte Fell-Smith, this portrait was painted when Dee was 67. It belonged to grandson Rowland Dee and later to Elias Ashmole, who left it to Oxford University.
- Benjamin Woolley (2012), The Queen's Conjuror, HarperCollins UK, p. 3, ISBN 9780007401062
- John Dee at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
- "British Society for the History of Mathematics". Dcs.warwick.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2010-05-16. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
- Roberts, R. Julian (2006) . "Dee, John (1527–1609)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/7418. Retrieved 6 December 2011. ((subscription or UK public library membership required))
- Gwyn A. Williams, When Was Wales? A History of the Welsh (London: Penguin, 1985), p.124.
- "Blogs - Wales - John Dee, magician to Queen Elizabeth". BBC. 2010-12-18. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
- Jones and Chambers 1959.
- "Dee biography". History.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
- "Welsh Journals Online". Welshjournals.llgc.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
- Poole, Robert. "John Dee and the English Calendar: Science, Religion and Empire". The Institute of Historical Research. Archived from the originalon 2011-06-13.
- Fell Smith, Charlotte (1909). John Dee: 1527–1608. London: Constable and Company. p. 15. ISBN 9781291940411. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
- Fell Smith, Charlotte (1909). John Dee: 1527–1608. London: Constable and Company. pp. 15 & 16. ISBN 9781291940411. Retrieved 31 December2015.
- "A true & faithful relation of what passed for many yeers between Dr John Dee ... and some spirits (London, 1659)". St John's College, Cambridge. 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
- Fell Smith, Charlotte (1909). John Dee: 1527–1608. London: Constable and Company. p. 15. ISBN 9781291940411. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
- Gerolamo Cardano (trans. by Jean Stoner) (2002). De Vita Propria (The Book of My Life). New York: New York Review of Books. viii.
- Fell Smith, Charlotte (1909). John Dee: 1527–1608. London: Constable and Company.
- Julian Roberts, ed. (2005). "A John Dee Chronology, 1509–1609". Renaissance Man: The Reconstructed Libraries of European Scholars: 1450–1700 Series One: The Books and Manuscripts of John Dee, 1527–1608. Adam Matthew Publications. Archived from the original on 2008-07-20. Retrieved 27 October 2006.
- "Mortlake". The Environs of London: County of Surrey. 1: 364–88. 1792. Retrieved 27 October 2006.
- "Books owned by John Dee". St. John's College, Cambridge. Retrieved 26 October 2006.
- Dr. Robert Poole (6 September 2005). "John Dee and the English Calendar: Science, Religion and Empire". Institute of Historical Research. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 26 October 2006.
- Szönyi, György E. (2004). "John Dee and Early Modern Occult Philosophy". Literature Compass. 1 (1): 1–12.
- John Strype, Annals of the Reformation, Oxford (1824), vol.ii, part ii, no. XLV, 558–563
- Forshaw, Peter J. (2005). "The Early Alchemical Reception of John Dee's Monas Hieroglyphica". Ambix. Maney Publishing. 52 (3): 247–269. doi:10.1179/000269805X77772.
- "John Dee (1527–1608): Alchemy – the Beginnings of Chemistry" (PDF). Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2006. Retrieved 26 October 2006.
- Stephen Johnston (1995). "The identity of the mathematical practitioner in 16th-century England". Museum of the History of Science, Oxford. Retrieved 27 October 2006.
- Frank Klaassen (August 2002). "John Dee's Conversations with Angels: Cabala, alchemy, and the end of nature". Canadian Journal of History.
- Calder, I. R. F. (1952). "John Dee Studied as an English Neo-Platonist". University of London. Retrieved 26 October 2006.
- "Dee, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2006. Retrieved 27 October 2006.
- Meric Casaubon. A True & Faithful Relation of What passed for many Yeers between Dr. John Dee (A Mathematician of Great Fame in Q. Eliz. and King James their Reignes) and some spirits. New York: Magickal Childe Pub. ISBN 0-939708-01-9.
- Dee, John. Quinti Libri Mysteriorum. British Library.
- Mackay, Charles (1852). "4". Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds. London: Office of the National Illustrated Library.
- "History of the Alchemy Guild". International Alchemy Guild. Archived from the original on 2009-02-28. Retrieved 26 October 2006. (Subscription required (. ))
- “Although it is indeed probable that Kelly was more accomplished and also more devoted to pursuing the way of transmuting base metals to gold, his master approached alchemy in a more subtle and complex way. He did not stand next to the furnace and the alembic day and night, but in his diaries he documented his practical experiments.”Szőnyi, György E. (2015). "'Layers of Meaning in Alchemy in John Dee's Monas hieroglyphica and its Relevance in a Central European Context'" (PDF). Centre for Renaissance Texts, 2015, 100.
- Dee, John (1842) Diary. Manchester: Chetham Society; p. 33
- "John Dee". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). London: Cambridge University Press. 1911.
- Fell-Smith, Charlotte (1909). John Dee: 1527–1608: Appendix 1. London: Constable and Company.
- Frangopulo, N. J. (1962) Rich Inheritance. Manchester: Education Committee; pp. 129–30
- John Aubrey (1898). Rev. Andrew Clark, ed. Brief Lives chiefly of Contemporaries set down John Aubrey between the Years 1669 and 1696. Clarendon Press.
- "John Dee of Mortlake Society-Home". Johndeemortlakesoc.org. Retrieved 2015-06-02.
- "ALCHEMICAL MANCHESTER - THE DEE CONNECTION". Uncarved.org. Retrieved 2015-06-02.
- Manchester Cathedral Archive, MS 1
- "Appendix 1 : The Descendants of John Dee" (PDF). Johndee.org. Retrieved 2015-06-02.
- Aubrey's great-grandfather William Aubrey was a cousin "and intimate acquaintance" of Dee.
- Walter I. Trattner (January 1964). "God and Expansion in Elizabethan England: John Dee, 1527–1583". Journal of the History of Ideas. 25 (1): 17–34. doi:10.2307/2708083. JSTOR 2708083.
- William Howard Sherman John Dee: The Politics of Reading and Writing in the English Renaissance, Univ of Massachusetts Press, 1997 ISBN 1-55849-070-1
- Frances Amelia Yates Astraea
- Virginia Hewitt, 'Britannia (fl. 1st–21st cent.)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004
- O. J. Padel, 'Arthur (supp. fl. in or before 6th cent.)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004
- "Imperial ambition". National Maritime Museum. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011.
- 1577 J. DEE Arte Navigation 65 OED Online Retrieved 1 April 2009
- Sherman, William Howard. John Dee: The Politics of Reading and Writing in the English Renaissance, p. 148. University of Massachusetts Press, 1995. ISBN 1-55849-070-1
- Nicholls, Andrew D. The Jacobean Union: A Reconsideration of British Civil Policies under the Early Stuarts (Volume 64 of Contributions to the Study of World History), p. 19, n. 14. . Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999. ISBN 0-313-30835-7
- R. C. D. Baldwin, 'Thorne, Robert, the elder (c.1460–1519)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004
- :(BL, Cotton Augustus 1.I.i)
- J. E. Lloyd, 'Madog ab Owain Gwynedd (supp. fl. 1170)', rev. J. Gwynfor Jones, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004
- Ken MacMillan. "Discourse on history, geography, and law: John Dee and the limits of the British empire, 1576–80". Canadian Journal of History, April 2001.
- Robert W. Barone. "Madoc and John Dee: Welsh Myth and Elizabethan Imperialism". The Elizabethan Review. Robert W. Barone is Professor of History at the University of Montevallo
- Ron Heisler (1992). "John Dee and the Secret Societies". The Hermetic Journal.
- Katherine Neal (1999). "The Rhetoric of Utility: Avoiding Occult Associations For Mathematics Through Profitability and Pleasure" (PDF). University of Sydney. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2006.
- Fell-Smith, Charlotte "John Dee: 1527-1608" Constable & Company Ltd. London. 1909
- Frances A. Yates (1987). Theatre of the World. London: Routledge. p. 7.
- Brian Vickers (July 1992). "Francis Bacon and the Progress of Knowledge". Journal of the History of Ideas. 53 (3): 495–518. doi:10.2307/2709891. JSTOR 2709891.
- Stephen Johnston (1995). "Like father, like son? John Dee, Thomas Digges and the identity of the mathematician". Museum of the History of Science, Oxford. Retrieved 27 October 2006.
- Green, James. The Streets of Richmond and Kew (1990 ed.). Richmond Local History Society. ISBN 0950819859.
- Rugg, Gordon (July 2004). "The Mystery of the Voynich Manuscript". Scientific American. Archived from the original on 2007-10-13. Retrieved 28 October 2006.
- Reeds, Jim (1996). "John Dee and the Magic Tables in the Book of Soyga" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-03-05. Retrieved 8 November 2006.
- "Dr Dee's magic". British Museum. Archived from the original on 2010-07-06.
- "Dr Dee's mirror". British Museum. Archived from the original on 2010-07-07.
- "BSHM Gazetteer – LONDON: British Museum, British Library and Science Museum". British Society for the History of Mathematics. August 2002. Archived from the original on 2006-12-11. Retrieved 27 October 2006.
- Adam Fresco (11 December 2004). "Museum thief spirits away old crystal ball". The Times. London. Retrieved 27 October 2006.
- Woolley, Benjamin The Queen's Conjuror: The Science and Magic of Dr. John Dee, Adviser to Queen Elizabeth I. New York: Henry Holt and Company (2001)
- Brown, Mark (17 January 2016). "John Dee painting originally had circle of human skulls, x-ray imaging reveals". The Guardian.
- "The Bones of Avalon: Being Edited from the Most Private Documents of Dr. John Dee, Astrologer and Consultant to Queen Elizabeth". Fiction Book Review. Publishers Weekly. 18 April 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- Horwitz, Jane. Backstage: 'Burn Your Bookes' at Taffety Punk, Folger's 2010–2011 season in The Washington Post, 5 May 2010.
- "Damon Albarn's Dr Dee". BBC 6 music news. 14 June 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
- Church, Michael (27 June 2012). "First night: Dr Dee, English National Opera, London". The Independent. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
- Hickling, Alfred (2 July 2011). "Dr Dee, Palace Theatre, Manchester". The Guardian. London.
- Dee, John Quinti Libri Mysteriorum. British Library, MS Sloane Collection 3188. Also available in a fair copy by Elias Ashmole, MS Sloane 3677.
- Dee, John John Dee's five books of mystery: original sourcebook of Enochian magic: from the collected works known as Mysteriorum libri quinqueedited by Joseph H. Peterson, Boston: Weiser Books ISBN 1-57863-178-5.
- Dee, John The Mathematicall Praeface to the Elements of Geometrie of Euclid of Megara (1570). New York: Science History Publications (1975) ISBN 0-88202-020-X
- Dee, John John Dee on Astronomy: Propaedeumata Aphoristica (1558 & 1568) edited by Wayne Shumaker, Berkeley: University of California Press ISBN 0-520-03376-0
- Dee, John. Autobiographical tracts of John Dee, Warden of the College of Manchester, ed. James Crossley. Chetham Society Publications, Vol XXIV. Manchester, 1851.
- Dee, John. Diary for the years 1595-1601, ed. John E. Bailey. Privately printed, 1880.
- Cajori, Florian A History of Mathematical Notations New York: Cosimo (2007) ISBN 1-60206-684-1
- Calder, I. R. F. John Dee Studied as an English Neo-Platonist PhD Dissertation, London: The Warburg Institute, London University (1952) Available online
- Canny, Nicholas (2001). The Origins of Empire: The Oxford History of the British Empire, Volume I. Oxford University Press (1998). ISBN 0-19-924676-9.
- Casaubon, M. A True and Faithful Relation of What Passed for many Yeers Between Dr. John Dee ... (1659) repr. "Magickal Childe" ISBN 0-939708-01-9 New York (1992)
- Clucas, Stephen, ed. John Dee: interdisciplinary studies in Renaissance thought. Dordrecht: Springer (2006) ISBN 1-4020-4245-0
- Clucas, Stephen, ed. John Dee's Monas Hieroglyphica. Ambix Special Issue. Vol. 52, Part 3, 2005, includes articles by Clulee, Norrgren, Forshaw and Bayer.
- Clulee, Nicholas H. John Dee's Natural Philosophy: between science and religion. London: Routledge (1988) ISBN 0-415-00625-2
- Fell-Smith, Charlotte. John Dee: 1527–1608. London: Constable and Company (1909) Available online.
- French, Peter J. John Dee: the world of an Elizabethan magus. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul (1972) ISBN 0-7102-0385-3
- Håkansson, Håkan. Seeing the Word: John Dee and Renaissance occultism. Lund: Lunds Universitet, 2001. ISBN 91-974153-0-8 Available online
- Jones, John James; Chambers, Llewelyn Gwyn (1959), "Dee, John (1527–1608), mathematician and astronomer", Dictionary of Welsh Biography, National Library of Wales, retrieved 27 March 2018
- Kugler, Martin. Astronomy in Elizabethan England, 1558 to 1585: John Dee, Thomas Digges, and Giordano Bruno. Montpellier: Université Paul Valéry (1982)
- Louv, Jason. John Dee and the Empire of Angels: Enochian Magick and the Occult Roots of the Modern World." Inner Traditions (April 17, 2018) ISBN 1620555891/ISBN 978-1620555897 available at Amazon.com
- (in French) Mandosio, Jean-Marc. D'or et de sable (chapitre IV. Magie et mathématiques chez John Dee, pp. 143–170), Paris, éditions de l'Encyclopédie des Nuisances, (2008) ISBN 2-910386-26-0
- Morris, Tom. John Dee and Edward Kelley (2013) Available online
- Parry, Glyn. The Arch-Conjuror of England: John Dee and Magic at the Courts of Renaissance Europe New Haven: Yale University Press, (2012) ISBN 978-0300117196
- Sherman, William Howard. John Dee: The Politics of Reading and Writing in the English Renaissance Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press(1995) ISBN 1-55849-070-1
- Stark, Ryan. Rhetoric, Science, and Magic in Seventeenth-Century England. Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press, 2009.
- Vickers, Brian ed. Occult & Scientific Mentalities in the Renaissance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1984) ISBN 0-521-25879-0
- Woolley, Benjamin (March 2002) , The Queen’s Conjuror: The Life and Magic of Dr. Dee (New ed.), London: Flamingo: HarperCollins Publishers, ISBN 978-0006552024
- Yates, Frances The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age. London: Routledge (2001) ISBN 0-415-25409-4
- Yates, Frances. "Renaissance Philosophers in Elizabethan England: John Dee and Giordano Bruno." in her Lull & Bruno: Collected Essays Vol. I.London: Routledge & Kegan (1982) ISBN 0-7100-0952-6
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Dee, John.|
- Works by John Dee at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about John Dee at Internet Archive
- The Private Diary of Dr. John Dee, and the Catalogue of His Library of Manuscripts Full view book with PDF download at Google Books
- The Private Diary of Dr. John Dee, and the Catalogue of His Library of ... with James Orchard Full view book with PDF download at Internet Archive
- The Calls of Enoch with Edward Kelley Full view book at Google Books
- John Dee reports of Dee and Kelley's conversations with Angels edited in PDF by Clay Holden: Mysteriorum Liber Primus (with Latin translations), Notes to Liber Primus by Clay Holden, Mysteriorum Liber Secundus, Mysteriorum Liber Tertius
- The J.W. Hamilton-Jones translation of Monas Hieroglyphica from Twilit Grotto: Archives of Western Esoterica
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "John Dee", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
- Bibliography of John Dee's diary and Enochian manuscripts
- "Monas Hieroglyphica" - A webinar by Peter Forshaw about John Dee on the website of the Ritman Library, Amsterdam.
- Forshaw, Peter, 'The Early Alchemical Reception of John Dee's Monas Hieroglyphica,' Ambix, Vol. 52:3 (2005)
- Forshaw, Peter, 'The Hermetic Frontispiece: Contextualising John Dee's Hieroglyphic Monad', Ambix, Vol. 64:1 (2017)
- Selwood, Dominic. "Dr John Dee: Mathematician, Scientist, Magus and Conjuror (2013)